Nano (nm), like meters, micrometers, etc., is a unit of length, a nanometer equals ten minus nine square meters, about an order of magnitude larger than a chemical bond. Nanotechnology is a science and technology that studies the laws and interactions of systems consisting of substances ranging in size from 0.1 to 100 nanometers and possible technical problems in practical applications. Nanoelectronics, mechanics, biology, materials processing, etc. can be derived.
What is nano?
Nano (nm), also known as nanometer, is a measure of length, 1 nanometer = 10^-9 meters. Nanotechnology refers to the processing of materials into nanoscale, ie 1/1000 of 1 mm. If you are asking nanotechnology in computer technology, then you can understand this. At present, the CPU process has reached 32 nanometers, that is, the maximum process of a component on a CPU is 32 nanometers, and the spacers are separated by only 0.2 nanometers between the components. At present, in the civilian field, Intel and AMD have already mastered this technology. In addition, in the field of graphics cards, TSMC has mastered 32nm GPU manufacturing technology. Nanotechnology can greatly reduce the chip size and power consumption of electronic components, and the nanoscale of the chip process has become an important indicator for the relative technological advancement of each chip manufacturer.
From the research situation so far, there are three concepts about nanotechnology. The first is the molecular nanotechnology proposed by Dr. Drexler in 1986 in the book The Machine of Creation. According to this concept, a machine for combining molecules can be put to practical use, so that all kinds of molecules can be arbitrarily combined, and any kind of molecular structure can be produced. Nanotechnology of this concept has not made significant progress.
The second concept positions nanotechnology as the limit of micromachining technology. That is, the technique of artificially forming nano-sized structures by nano-precision "processing." This nano-scale processing technology has also brought semiconductor miniaturization to its limit. Even if the existing technology is developed, it will theoretically reach the limit. This is because if the line width of the circuit is made small, the insulating film constituting the circuit is made extremely thin, which will destroy the insulating effect. In addition, there are problems such as heat and shaking. To solve these problems, researchers are working on new nanotechnology.
There is a nanoscale structure in the third film.
The so-called nanotechnology refers to a new technology for studying the laws and characteristics of motion in electrons, atoms and molecules at a scale of 0.1 to 100 nm. In the process of studying the composition of matter, scientists found that several, dozens of countable atoms or molecules isolated at the nanometer scale, significantly exhibiting many new features, and using these characteristics to make technology with specific functional devices. It is called nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology now includes nanobiology, nanoelectronics, nanomaterials, nanomechanics, and nanochemistry. From micron technology including nanoelectronics to nanotechnology, human beings are increasingly deepening into the microcosm, and the level of people's understanding and transformation of the microcosm has risen to an unprecedented height. Qian Xuesen, a famous scientist in China, has also pointed out that the structure of nanometers and below is a key point in the next stage of scientific and technological development. It will be a technological revolution, which will lead to another industrial revolution in the 21st century.
Although there is still a long way to go from the application stage, due to the extremely broad application prospects of nanotechnology, developed countries such as the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom have attached great importance to nanotechnology, and have formulated research plans and conducted related research. .
Characteristics of nanomaterials
When the size of the particles is reduced to the order of nanometers, the acoustic, optical, electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties will exhibit new characteristics. For example, the widely studied Group II-VI semiconductor cadmium sulfide has a significantly blue shift in the position of the absorption band boundary and the peak of the luminescence spectrum as the grain size decreases. According to this principle, cadmium sulfide with different energy gaps can be obtained by controlling the grain size, which will greatly enrich the research content of the material and is expected to obtain new uses. We know that the types of substances are limited. Both micron and nano cadmium sulfide are composed of sulfur and cadmium. However, by controlling the preparation conditions, materials with different band gaps and luminescent properties can be obtained. In other words, new materials have been obtained through nanotechnology. Nanoparticles tend to have a large specific surface area, and the specific surface area per gram of this solid can reach hundreds or even thousands of square meters, which makes them useful as highly active adsorbents and catalysts in hydrogen storage, organic synthesis and environmental protection. Other fields have important application prospects. For nanomaterials, we can use the words "lighter, higher, stronger" to summarize. “Lighter” means that with the help of nanomaterials and technology, we can make devices with smaller or better performance, reduce the size of the device and make it lighter. The first computer needed three houses to store, and it was with micron-level semiconductor manufacturing technology that it achieved miniaturization and popularized computers. Regardless of energy and resource utilization, the benefits of this “miniaturization” are amazing. "Higher" means that nanomaterials are expected to have higher optical, electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties. "Strong" means that nanomaterials have stronger mechanical properties (such as strength and toughness). For nanoceramics, nanocrystallization is expected to solve the brittleness problem of ceramics and may exhibit plasticity similar to that of metals.